Bay of Fundy

About Bay of Fundy

Nestled between the provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the Bay of Fundy in Canada unfolds as a natural wonder of extraordinary tides and coastal grandeur. Renowned for having the highest tides in the world, this maritime marvel sees the rhythmic ebb and flow of waters that can rise and fall by as much as 16 meters.

As the Bay breathes, it unveils a captivating interplay of ecosystems, from vibrant tidal flats to rugged cliffs adorned with evergreen forests. Home to diverse marine life, the Bay of Fundy stands as a crucial feeding ground for whales, seals, and migratory birds. The vibrant red cliffs of Hopewell Rocks, sculpted by the relentless tides, offer a surreal landscape that shifts dramatically between low and high tide.

With its dynamic tidal phenomena and stunning coastal landscapes, the Bay of Fundy beckons visitors to witness the relentless dance of nature, making it a cherished natural wonder along Canada’s Atlantic coastline.

Physical Characteristics

The Bay of Fundy, a marvel on Canada’s Atlantic coast, experiences the most dramatic tidal changes globally. Twice daily, tides surge, with an average range of 42 feet (13 m), showcasing the bay’s dynamic nature. Notably, the highest recorded tidal change reached a staggering 53 feet (16 m).

This phenomenon creates unique ecosystems, including extensive mudflats and rich biodiversity. The bay’s extreme tides shape stunning landscapes, revealing dramatic rock formations like the Hopewell Rocks. As visitors explore, they witness the relentless power of the tides, shaping not only the physical features of the bay but also the ecological wonders that thrive in this dynamic coastal environment.


The Bay of Fundy, situated between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, is renowned for its dramatic tides, which are the highest in the world. This unique marine environment fosters a rich diversity of wildlife, creating a dynamic ecosystem where the land meets the sea. From the majestic marine mammals that navigate its waters to the vibrant birdlife that graces its shores, the Bay of Fundy is a haven for nature enthusiasts seeking to witness the wonders of the Atlantic coast.

Top 10 Wildlife Species in and around the Bay of Fundy:

  1. North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis):
    • Gliding through the bay’s waters, the North Atlantic right whale is a massive marine mammal, recognized by its large head and lack of a dorsal fin. These gentle giants visit the Bay of Fundy to feed, providing a rare opportunity for whale watching.
  2. Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica):
    • Navigating the coastal cliffs, the Atlantic puffin is a charming seabird known for its colorful beak and distinct markings. These birds gather in colonies, particularly on islands in the Bay of Fundy, forming a lively spectacle.
  3. Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae):
    • Breaching and fluking in the bay’s waters, humpback whales are iconic marine mammals with distinctive knobby heads. Known for their acrobatic displays, these whales are a common sight during their seasonal migrations.
  4. Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena):
    • Playfully surfacing near the shoreline, harbor porpoises are small cetaceans with a characteristic triangular dorsal fin. These agile swimmers frequent the Bay of Fundy, delighting observers with their playful behavior.
  5. Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus):
    • Soaring above the coastal landscapes, the bald eagle is a majestic raptor with a distinctive white head and tail. These birds of prey are a common sight around the Bay of Fundy, hunting for fish and seabirds.
  6. Grey Seal (Halichoerus grypus):
    • Basking on rocky outcrops or floating in the bay’s waters, grey seals are marine mammals with distinctive V-shaped nostrils. These seals often haul out on coastal rocks to rest and give birth to their pups.
  7. Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata):
    • Swiftly swimming near the surface, minke whales are smaller baleen whales commonly seen in the Bay of Fundy. With their sleek bodies and pointed rostrums, these whales engage in feeding behaviors, creating memorable moments for onlookers.
  8. Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle):
    • Diving for fish in the bay’s currents, the black guillemot is a striking seabird with black plumage and bright red feet. These birds nest along the rocky cliffs and add a colorful presence to the coastal ecosystem.
  9. Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar):
    • Undertaking remarkable migrations, Atlantic salmon navigate the Bay of Fundy’s rivers to spawn. Known for their resilience and leaping abilities, these fish contribute to the bay’s intricate freshwater and marine interactions.
  10. Common Eider (Somateria mollissima):
    • Floating in the bay’s sheltered coves, the common eider is a large sea duck with distinctive plumage. These ducks are often seen foraging for mollusks and crustaceans in the intertidal zones along the Bay of Fundy.

Exploring the wildlife of the Bay of Fundy unveils not only the captivating beauty of its marine inhabitants but also the delicate balance of ecosystems shaped by the rhythmic tides. From the awe-inspiring whales to the charismatic puffins, each species contributes to the vibrant natural tapestry that defines this extraordinary coastal region.

Ways to Experience

The Bay of Fundy, nestled between New Brunswick and Nova Scotia in Canada, boasts the world’s highest tides and a rich coastal ecosystem. This natural wonder invites explorers to witness the tidal marvels and engage in diverse activities along its rugged shores.

Ways to Experience the Bay of Fundy:

  1. Hopewell Rocks Exploration:
    • Explore the iconic Hopewell Rocks at low tide. Marvel at the towering flowerpot formations, and then return during high tide to witness the dramatic change as the Bay of Fundy’s immense tidal forces transform the landscape.
  2. Whale Watching Adventures:
    • Embark on whale watching adventures. The Bay of Fundy is a prime location to spot humpback whales, minke whales, and the rare North Atlantic right whales. Guided tours offer thrilling encounters with these majestic marine creatures.
  3. Fundy Footpath Hiking:
    • Hike the Fundy Footpath, a challenging coastal trail offering stunning views of the bay. Traverse through lush forests, rugged cliffs, and secluded beaches, immersing yourself in the untamed beauty of the Bay of Fundy.
  4. Sea Kayaking Excursions:
    • Join sea kayaking excursions for an intimate exploration of the bay’s hidden coves and sea stacks. Paddle through the changing tides, observing coastal wildlife and enjoying the serenity of Fundy’s coastal waters.
  5. Dig for Fossils at Joggins Fossil Cliffs:
    • Visit the Joggins Fossil Cliffs and engage in fossil hunting. This UNESCO World Heritage Site reveals an ancient world, offering a chance to discover well-preserved fossils embedded in the cliffs along the Bay of Fundy.
  6. Bird Watching at Shepody National Wildlife Area:
    • Engage in bird watching at the Shepody National Wildlife Area. This coastal sanctuary provides a habitat for numerous bird species, including sandpipers and plovers, making it a haven for ornithologists and nature enthusiasts.
  7. Fundy Coastal Drive:
    • Take a scenic drive along the Fundy Coastal Drive. This picturesque route winds through coastal communities, providing breathtaking vistas of the bay, charming lighthouses, and opportunities to explore quaint seaside towns.
  8. St. Martins Sea Caves Exploration:
    • Explore the sea caves at St. Martins during low tide. Wander through the intricate cave formations, revealing a mesmerizing subterranean world sculpted by the Bay of Fundy’s relentless tidal movements.
  9. Dine on Fresh Seafood:
    • Indulge in fresh seafood dining experiences. The bay’s rich waters offer delectable catches, and local restaurants serve dishes featuring lobster, scallops, and other treasures from the Bay of Fundy.
  10. Fundy National Park Adventures:
    • Discover Fundy National Park’s diverse landscapes. From dense forests to coastal trails, the park provides opportunities for hiking, camping, and experiencing the bay’s natural beauty within a protected wilderness setting.

The Bay of Fundy’s dynamic tides and coastal wonders create an enchanting backdrop for a variety of activities. Whether exploring geological wonders, observing marine life, or hiking along the rugged coastline, each encounter with the Bay of Fundy promises a unique and unforgettable experience.

Best Times

Welcome to the captivating Bay of Fundy, a natural wonder nestled between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Each season graces the bay with unique offerings, providing an ever-changing landscape for visitors to explore.

Best Time to Visit:

  • Summer (June to August):
    • Average Temperatures: 60 to 75°F (15 to 24°C)
    • Summer unveils the Bay of Fundy at its most vibrant. Mild temperatures create the perfect conditions for outdoor adventures. Witness the highest tides in the world, explore charming coastal towns, and indulge in whale watching. Summer beckons with a plethora of marine life and blooming coastal landscapes, offering an ideal setting for exploration and relaxation.
  • Fall (September to November):
    • Average Temperatures: 45 to 60°F (7 to 15°C)
    • As autumn arrives, the Bay of Fundy transforms into a breathtaking tapestry of fall colors. Cooler temperatures bring a crispness to the air, and the landscapes become adorned with hues of red, orange, and gold. This season is perfect for hiking along coastal trails, experiencing the changing foliage, and enjoying the tranquility that blankets the bay.
  • Winter (December to February):
    • Average Temperatures: 20 to 35°F (-6 to 2°C)
    • Winter casts a serene spell over the Bay of Fundy. While temperatures dip, the season brings a unique charm. Witness the bay’s coastal cliffs dusted with snow, explore ice-covered shorelines, and experience the peaceful ambiance. Winter offers a quieter escape, ideal for those seeking a more contemplative visit away from the summer crowds.
  • Spring (March to May):
    • Average Temperatures: 35 to 55°F (2 to 13°C)
    • Spring breathes new life into the Bay of Fundy. The season heralds the return of migratory birds and marine life. Explore coastal trails lined with blooming wildflowers, witness the awakening of the bay’s ecosystems, and embark on birdwatching adventures. Spring is a rejuvenating time, offering a delightful blend of nature’s renewal and coastal exploration.


No matter the season, the Bay of Fundy invites you to witness its ever-changing beauty. Whether you prefer the vibrancy of summer, the colors of fall, the serenity of winter, or the rejuvenation of spring, each season promises a unique and enchanting experience along this remarkable stretch of the Atlantic coastline.

Wonders of Canada